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Fibroblast growth factor 21, FGF-21.

The FGFs are a family of more than 20 small (~17–26 kDa) secreted peptides. The initial characterization of these proteins focused on their ability to stimulate fibroblast proliferation. This mitogenic activity was mediated through FGF receptors (FGFRs) 1, 2, or 3. A fourth closely related tyrosine kinase receptor (FGFR4) was able to bind the FGFs but did not lead to a mitogenic response.
FGFs modulate cellular activity via at least 5 distinct subfamilies of high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFRs): FGFR-1, -2, -3, and -4, all with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and, except for FGFR-4, multiple splice isoforms, and FGFR-5, which lacks an intracellular kinase domain. There is growing evidence that FGFRs can be important for regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The overexpression of a dominant negative form of FGFR-1 in β cells leads to diabetes in mice, which thus implies that proper FGF signaling is required for normal β cell function and glycemia maintenance. FGFR-2 appears to be a key molecule during pancreatic development. Moreover, FGFR-4 has been implicated in cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis.FGF-19, has been shown to cause resistance to diet-induced obesity and insulin desensitization and to improve insulin, glucose, and lipid profiles in diabetic rodents. Since these effects, at least in part, are mediated through the observed changes in metabolic rates, FGF-19 can be considered as a regulator of energy expenditure.
FGF-21 is preferentially expressed in liver, but an exact knowledge of FGF-21 bioactivity and its mode of action have been lacking to date. FGF-21 is a potent activator of glucose uptake on adipocytes, protects animals from diet-induced obesity when overexpressed in transgenic mice, and lowers blood glucose and triglyceride levels when therapeutically administered to diabetic rodents.

Fibroblast Growth Factor -21 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 195 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 21 kDa. The amino acid sequence of the recombinant human FGF21 is 100% homologous to the amino acid sequence of the human FGF21 without signal sequence and contains 14 a.a. His tag at N-terminal.
The FGF-21 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.

Escherichia Coli.

Physical Appearance:
Sterile Filtered white lyophilized powder.

Filtered (0.4 µm) and lyophilized from 0.5 mg/ml in 20mM TRIS, 20mM NaCl, pH 7.5.

It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Human Recombinant sterile 18MΩ-cm H2O not less than 100µg/ml, which can then be further diluted to other aqueous solutions.

Lyophilized FGF-21 Human Recombinant although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).
Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles.

Greater than 95.0% as determined by:
(a) Analysis by RP-HPLC.
(b) Analysis by SDS-PAGE.

Amino acid sequence:

• Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova TL, Koester A, Ford AM, Micanovic R, Galbreath EJ, Sandusky GE, Hammond LJ, Moyers JS, Owens RA, Gromada J, Brozinick JT, Hawkins ED, Wroblewski VJ, Li DS, Mehrbod F, Jaskunas SR, Shanafelt AB.FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. J Clin Invest. 2005 Jun;115(6):1627-35. Epub 2005 May 2.

• Strack AM, Myers RW. Modulation of metabolic syndrome by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). Endocrinology. 2004 Jun;145(6):2591-3. Review.

• Fu L, John LM, Adams SH, Yu XX, Tomlinson E, Renz M, Williams PM, Soriano R, Corpuz R, Moffat B, Vandlen R, Simmons L, Foster J, Stephan JP, Tsai SP, Stewart TA. Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetes. Endocrinology. 2004 Jun;145(6):2594-603. Epub 2004 Feb 19.

• Harmer NJ, Pellegrini L, Chirgadze D, Fernandez-Recio J, Blundell TL. The crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 reveals novel features of the FGF family and offers a structural basis for its unusual receptor affinity. Biochemistry. 2004 Jan 27;43(3):629-40.

• Holt JA, Luo G, Billin AN, Bisi J, McNeill YY, Kozarsky KF, Donahee M, Wang da Y, Mansfield TA, Kliewer SA, Goodwin B, Jones SA. Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis. Genes Dev. 2003 Jul 1;17(13):1581-91. Epub 2003 Jun 18.

• Nicholes K, Guillet S, Tomlinson E, Hillan K, Wright B, Frantz GD, Pham TA, Dillard-Telm L, Tsai SP, Stephan JP, Stinson J, Stewart T, French DM. A mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma: ectopic expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice. Am J Pathol. 2002 Jun;160(6):2295-307.

• Tomlinson E, Fu L, John L, Hultgren B, Huang X, Renz M, Stephan JP, Tsai SP, Powell-Braxton L, French D, Stewart TA. Transgenic mice expressing human fibroblast growth factor-19 display increased metabolic rate and decreased adiposity. Endocrinology. 2002 May;143(5):1741-7.

• Nishimura T, Nakatake Y, Konishi M, Itoh N. Identification of a novel FGF, FGF-21, preferentially expressed in the liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 21;1492(1):203-6.

• Xie MH, Holcomb I, Deuel B, Dowd P, Huang A, Vagts A, Foster J, Liang J, Brush J, Gu Q, Hillan K, Goddard A, Gurney AL. FGF-19, a novel fibroblast growth factor with unique specificity for FGFR4. Cytokine. 1999 Oct;11(10):729-35.

• Nishimura T, Utsunomiya Y, Hoshikawa M, Ohuchi H, Itoh N. Structure and expression of a novel human FGF, FGF-19, expressed in the fetal brain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Jan 18;1444(1):148-51.

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